According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disorders, lactose is often added to prepared foods, including bread and other baked goods; processed breakfast cereals; instant potatoes, soups, and breakfast drinks; margarine; lunch meats (other than kosher); salad dressings; candies and other snacks; and mixes for pancakes, biscuits, and cookies.
Some products labeled nondairy, such as powdered coffee creamer and whipped toppings, may also include ingredients that are derived from milk and therefore contain lactose.
When reading food labels with care, look not only for milk and lactose among the contents, but also for words such as whey; curds; milk by-products; dry milk solids; and nonfat dry milk powder.
Lactose is used as the base for more than 20 percent of prescription drugs and about 6 percent of over-the-counter medicines. Many types of birth control pills, for example, contain lactose, as do some tablets for stomach acid and gas.
Lactose intolerance is a condition caused by a lack of an enzyme called lactase, which, in turn, causes the body to be unable to digest lactose, a sugar found in milk and milk products.
Lactase is normally produced by cells lining the small intestine where it breaks down lactose into a form that can be absorbed by the blood. A lack of lactase can cause uncomfortable symptoms for some people. Those who exhibit symptoms are said to be lactose intolerant.
Thirty to 50 million Americans (adults and children) are lactose intolerant. The disorder affects some populations more than others:
Digestive diseases or injuries to the small intestine can reduce the amount of enzymes produced, and is the usual cause of lactose intolerance in young children. However, most cases of lactose intolerance develop over a period of many years in adults.
The following are the most common symptoms of lactose intolerance. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms begin to appear in Caucasian children after age five, and in African-American children by two years of age.
Common symptoms, which begin about 30 minutes to two hours after consuming foods or beverages containing lactose, may include:
The severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of lactose consumed and the amount each individual can tolerate.
The symptoms of lactose intolerance may resemble other medical conditions or problems. Always consult your doctor for a diagnosis.
The most common diagnostic tests used to measure the absorption of lactose in the digestive system include the following:
Specific treatment for lactose intolerance will be determined by your doctor based on:
Although there is not a treatment to improve the body's ability to produce lactase, symptoms caused by lactose intolerance can be controlled with a proper diet. In addition, lactase enzymes may be suggested by your doctor.
Young children with lactase deficiency should be under the care of a doctor.
In September of 2006, the American Academy of Pediatrics released new guidelines for treating lactose intolerance. These guidelines support the use of dairy foods as an important source of calcium for bone growth and maintenance, as well as of other nutrients needed for growth in children and adolescents.
In the past, it had been recommended that dairy products should be eliminated from the diet to treat lactose intolerance. The new guidelines suggest that dairy foods should be tried to see which ones can be tolerated better than others. While the symptoms of lactose intolerance can be unpleasant, the condition does not damage the body. Thus, dairy foods that cause less disagreeable symptoms should be used in the diet to ensure adequate intake of calcium and other important nutrients.
|Calcium for people with lactose intolerance|
Calcium is essential for the growth and repair of bones throughout life, and has been suggested as a preventive for other diseases. Because milk and other dairy products are a major source of calcium, lactose intolerant children and adults must be concerned with getting enough calcium in a diet that includes little or no milk.
The recommended daily dietary allowance (RDA) for calcium, released in 2010 by the National Academy of Sciences, varies by age group:
Many nondairy foods are high in calcium, including the following:
Vitamin D is necessary for the body to absorb calcium; therefore, a diet should provide an adequate supply of vitamin D. Sources of vitamin D include eggs and liver, as well as sunlight.
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