Found in foods, glucose is an important source of immediate energy for the body. Glucose can also be stored as other forms in the liver and muscles for later use. Excess glucose is converted to fat.
Glucose is the main source of fuel for the brain, and is especially important for babies and young children. Complex hormonal and neurologic mechanisms regulate the amount of glucose between meals.
During pregnancy, glucose is passed to the fetus from the mother through the placenta. Some of the glucose is stored as glycogen in the placenta, and later in the fetal liver, heart, and muscles. These stores are important for supplying the baby's brain with glucose during delivery, and for nutrition after the baby is born.
Hypoglycemia is a condition in which the amount of blood glucose (sugar) in the blood is lower than normal.
Approximately one to three out of 1,000 newborn babies have hypoglycemia. Babies who are more likely to develop hypoglycemia include:
Hypoglycemia may be caused by conditions that:
Many different conditions may be associated with hypoglycemia in the newborn, including the following:
The brain depends on blood glucose as its main source of fuel. Too little glucose can impair the brain's ability to function. Severe or prolonged hypoglycemia may result in seizures and serious brain injury.
Symptoms of hypoglycemia may not be obvious in newborn babies. The following are the most common symptoms of hypoglycemia. However, each baby may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:
The symptoms of hypoglycemia may resemble other conditions or medical problems. Always consult your baby's doctor for a diagnosis.
A simple blood test for blood glucose levels can diagnose hypoglycemia. Generally, a baby with low blood glucose levels will need treatment.
Specific treatment for hypoglycemia will be determined by your baby's doctor based on:
Treatment includes giving the baby a rapid-acting source of glucose. This may be as simple as giving a glucose and water mixture or formula as an early feeding. Or, the baby may need glucose given intravenously. The baby's blood glucose levels are closely monitored after treatment to see if the hypoglycemia occurs again.
There may not be any way to prevent hypoglycemia, only to watch carefully for the symptoms and treat as soon as possible. Mothers with diabetes with blood glucose levels in tight control can help minimize the amount of glucose that goes to the fetus.
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