Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is caused by bacteria, often the same type that is responsible for several sexually transmitted diseases, such as gonorrhea and chlamydia. In some cases, PID develops from bacteria that has traveled through the vagina and the cervix by way of an intrauterine device (IUD).
PID can affect the uterus, fallopian tubes, and/or the ovaries. It can lead to pelvic adhesions and scar tissue that develops between internal organs, causing ongoing pelvic pain and the possibility of an ectopic pregnancy (the fertilized egg becomes implanted outside the uterus). Left untreated, infertility can develop. In fact, one in 10 women with PID becomes infertile. If left untreated, PID can also lead to chronic infection. In addition, if PID is not diagnosed early enough, peritonitis and inflammation of the walls of the abdominal and pelvic cavity may develop.
Although women of any age can develop PID, sexually active women under age 25, and those of childbearing age are at the greatest risk of acquiring the disease through sexually transmitted bacteria. Women who use intrauterine devices (IUDs) are also at an increased risk.
The following are the most common symptoms of PID. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms of PID include:
Symptoms may be mild enough that the condition may go undiagnosed.
The symptoms of pelvic inflammatory disease may resemble other conditions or medical problems. Always consult your health care provider for a diagnosis.
In addition to a complete medical history and physical and pelvic examination, diagnostic procedures for PID may include the following:
Specific treatment for cervicitis will be determined by your health care provider based on:
Treatment for PID usually includes oral antibiotics, particularly if there is evidence of gonorrhea or chlamydia. In cases of severe infection, hospitalization may be required to administer intravenous antibiotics. Occasionally, surgery is necessary.
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