Most people diagnosed with asthma will experience asthma symptoms when exercising. In addition, some who are not diagnosed with asthma will experience asthma symptoms, but only during exercise. This is a condition called exercise-induced asthma. Exercise-induced asthma is different from the typical asthma that is triggered by allergens and/or irritants. Some people have both types of asthma, while others only experience exercise-induced asthma.
Asthma is a chronic, inflammatory lung disease that leads to three airway problems: obstruction, inflammation, and hyper-responsiveness. Unfortunately, the basic cause of asthma is still not known.
When breathing normally, the air that enters the airways is first warmed and moistened by the nasal passages to prevent injury to the delicate lining of the airways. However, for someone with asthma, the airways may be extremely sensitive to allergens, irritants, infection, weather, and/or exercise. When asthma symptoms begin, the airways' muscles constrict and narrow, the lining of the airways begins to swell, and mucus production may increase. When exercising (especially outside in cold weather), the increased breathing in and breathing out through the mouth may cause the airways to dry and cool, which may irritate them and cause the onset of asthma symptoms. In addition, when breathing through the mouth during exercise, a person will inhale more air-borne particles, including pollen, which can trigger asthma.
Exercise-induced asthma is characterized by asthma symptoms, such as coughing, wheezing, and tightness in the chest within 5 to 20 minutes after starting to exercise. Exercised-induced asthma can also include symptoms such as unusual fatigue and feeling short-of-breath while exercising.
However, exercise should not be avoided because of asthma. In fact, exercise is very beneficial to a person with asthma, improving their airway function by strengthening their breathing muscles. Consult your doctor for more information.
Stretching and proper warm-up and cool-down exercises may relieve any chest tightness that occurs with exercising. In addition, breathing through the nose and not the mouth will help warm and humidify the air before it enters the airways, protecting the delicate lining of the airways. Other ways to help prevent an asthma attack due to exercise include the following:
According to the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology, the recommended sport for people with asthma is swimming, due to the warm, humid environment, the toning of the upper muscles, and the horizontal position (which may actually loosen mucus from the bottom of the lungs). Other recommended activities and sports include:
Sports that may aggravate exercise-induced asthma symptoms include:
However, with proper management and preparation, most people with asthma can participate in any sport.
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