SIADH occurs when excessive levels of antidiuretic hormones (hormones that help the kidneys, and body, conserve the correct amount of water) are produced. The syndrome causes the body to retain water and certain levels of electrolytes in the blood to fall (such as sodium). SIADH is rare in children.
SIADH tends to occur in people with heart failure or people with a diseased hypothalamus (the part of the brain that works directly with the pituitary gland to produce hormones). In other cases, a certain cancer (elsewhere in the body) may produce the antidiuretic hormone, especially certain lung cancers. Other causes may include the following:
Each child may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms, in more severe cases of SIADH, may include:
The symptoms of SIADH may resemble other problems or medical conditions. Always consult your child's doctor for a diagnosis.
In addition to a complete medical history and physical examination, to confirm diagnosis of SIADH, blood and urine tests will need to be performed to measure sodium, potassium chloride levels, and osmolality (concentration of solution in the blood or urine).
Specific treatment for SIADH will be determined by your child's doctor based on:
The most commonly prescribed treatment for SIADH is fluid restriction of between 30 to 75 percent of normal fluid intake, depending on the severity of the disorder. If the condition is chronic, fluid restriction may need to be permanent. Treatment may also include:
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