The effects of stroke vary from person to person based on the type, severity, and location of the stroke. The brain is extremely complex and each area of the brain is responsible for a special function or ability. When an area of the brain is damaged, which typically occurs with a stroke, an impairment may result. An impairment is the loss of normal function of part of the body. Sometimes, an impairment may result in a disability, or inability to perform an activity in a normal way.
The brain is divided into three main areas, including the following:
Depending on which of these regions of the brain the stroke occurs, the effects may be very different.
The cerebrum is the part of the brain that occupies the top and front portions of the skull. It is responsible for control of such abilities as movement and sensation, speech, thinking, reasoning, memory, sexual function, and regulation of emotions. The cerebrum is divided into the right and left sides, or hemispheres.
Depending on the area and side of the cerebrum affected by the stroke, any, or all, of the following body functions may be impaired:
In addition to these general effects, some specific impairments may occur when a particular area of the cerebrum is damaged.
The effects of a right hemisphere stroke may include the following:
The effects of a left hemisphere stroke may include the following:
The cerebellum is located beneath and behind the cerebrum towards the back of the skull. It receives sensory information from the body via the spinal cord and helps to coordinate muscle action and control, fine movement, coordination, and balance.
Although strokes are less common in the cerebellum area, the effects can be severe. Four common effects of strokes in the cerebellum include the following:
The brain stem is located at the very base of the brain right above the spinal cord. Many of the body's vital "life-support" functions such as heartbeat, blood pressure, and breathing are controlled by the brain stem. It also helps to control the main nerves involved with eye movement, hearing, speech, chewing, and swallowing. Some common effects of a stroke in the brain stem include problems with the following:
Unfortunately, death is common with brain stem strokes.
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