Parental and peer substance use are considered two of the more common factors contributing to youthful decisions regarding substance use. The age at which adolescents begin to use alcohol is decreasing, with 25 percent of young people beginning to drink before the age of 13, according to the CDC.
Some adolescents are more at risk of developing substance-related disorders. This includes adolescents with one or more of the following conditions present: children of substance abusers; adolescents who are victims of physical, sexual, or psychological abuse; adolescents with mental health problems, especially depressed and suicidal teens; and physically disabled adolescents.
Adolescent substance abuse is believed by some to be the most commonly missed pediatric diagnosis. Adolescents who use drugs are most likely to visit a doctor's office with no obvious physical findings.
Substance abuse problems are more likely to be discovered by doctors when adolescents are injured in accidents occurring while under the influence, or when they are brought for medical services because of intentional efforts to hurt themselves.
The main words used medically to describe substance abuse or addiction include the following:
Substances frequently abused include, but are not limited to, the following:
Cultural and societal factors determine what are acceptable or allowable forms of drug or alcohol use. Public laws determine what kind of drug use is legal or illegal. The question of what type of substance use can be considered normal or acceptable remains controversial. These medical disorders, substance abuse and dependence, are caused by multiple factors including genetic vulnerability, environmental stressors, social pressures, individual personality characteristics, and psychiatric problems. However, which of these factors has the biggest influence in any one person cannot be determined in all cases.
There are approaches frequently used to prevent adolescent substance use and abuse, including school-based prevention programs that usually provide drug and alcohol education and interpersonal and behavior skills training.
Community-based prevention programs usually involve the media and are aimed for parents and community groups. Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) and Students Against Drunk Driving (SADD) are the most well known community-based programs.
Family-focused prevention programs involve parent training, family skills training, children's social skills training, and family self-help groups. Research literature available suggests that components of family-focused prevention programs have decreased the use of alcohol and drugs in older children and improved the effectiveness of parenting skills.
The following are the most common behaviors that indicate an individual is having a problem with drug or alcohol abuse. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:
The symptoms of drug or alcohol abuse may resemble other medical problems or psychiatric conditions. Always consult your doctor for a diagnosis.
A family doctor, psychiatrist, or qualified mental health professional usually diagnoses substance abuse. Clinical findings often depend on the substance abused, the frequency of use, and the length of time since last used, and may include the following:
Specific treatment for drug abuse or dependence will be determined by your doctor based on:
A variety of treatment (or recovery) programs for substance abuse are available on an inpatient or outpatient basis. Programs considered are usually based on the type of substance abused. Detoxification (if needed, based on the substance abused) and long-term follow-up management or recovery-oriented systems of care are important features of successful treatment. Long-term follow-up management usually includes formalized group meetings and developmentally age-appropriate psychosocial support systems, as well as continued medical supervision. Individual and family psychotherapy are often recommended to address the developmental, psychosocial, and family issues that may have contributed to and resulted from the development of a substance abuse disorder.
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